Local Energy Management

A local electric power system is considered as an electric power system which belongs to a particular consumer so that the management of this system depends exclusively on its owner instead of the electric utility. Its size can be diverse, for example, from a small apartment to a large factory or even a subgrid that can contain a neighborhood of a city. For sake of simplicity, the local electric power systems can be called facilities along this text. A facility usually begins, and the utility's portion of the grid ends, at the output socket of the electricity meter. This point coincides with the end of the distribution network.

Facilities have historically been considered as mere consumers. Electricity is generated in power plants and it is consumed by a set of different power loads. This situation is changing with the increasing deployment of Distributed Energy Resoruce which can be found throughout the world geography. A facility may be composed by three types of elements: generation, storage and consumption.

The Facilities considered in these works are implemented based on an AC bus topology. In this topology, all elements of the system exchange energy in AC. Even the storage system stores and supplies electricity in AC through a battery inverter. The previous figure shows a schematic representation of the local electrical power system with the main power flows in a facility: the consumed power \(P_{load}(t)\), power generated by a PV generator \(P_{PV}(t)\), power exchanged with the local storage system \(P_{bat}(t)\) and power exchanged with the electrical grid \(P_{grid}(t)\). Given the spatial proximity between the generation, storage and consumption, the losses in the AC bus are considered negligible, thus, the power balance of the local facility at the AC bus is defined as: \(P_{PV} + P_{bat} + P_{grid} = P_{load}\).

The assessment factor used in the local framework is the self-consumption factor, denoted by the Greek letter \(\xi\). It represents the fraction of the electrical energy consumed by the loads which is only supplied by the local generation sources. The following equation defines mathematically the self-consumption factor: \(\xi = \frac{E_{PV,L} + E^{PV}_{B,L}}{E_{L}}\). \(E_{L}\) is the energy consumed by the loads, \(E_{PV,L}\) is the energy directly supplied by the PV generator to the loads and \(E^{PV}_{B,L}\) is the energy from PV origin supplied by the storage system to the loads. The last term \(E^{PV}_{B,L}\) represents the indirect use of the locally generated energy. Notice that the storage system can contain energy from both the local generator and the grid. It implies that the origin of this energy must be considered in the calculus of the self-consumption. As expected by its own definition, the range of \(\xi\) is \([0,1]\), because this factor is normalized by the total consumption of the local facility. This normalization also allows to compare the operation of different facilities regardless of their sizes. \(\xi=0\) would be the case of a facility with no local generation available, whereas, \(\xi=1\) means that all energy is locally supplied, for instance, a facility isolated from the electrical grid.

Related Publications

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    Daniel Masa-Bote, Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Eduardo Matallanas, Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Álvaro Gutiérrez, Félix Monasterio-Huelin and Javier Jiménez-Leube. Improving photovoltaics grid integration through short time forecasting and self-consumption. Applied Energy, 125, pages 103-113, July 2014, ISSN: 0306-2619, IF: 5.261. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.03.045.

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    Pablo Trujillo, Cesar Alamillo, María Martínez, Óscar de la Rubia, Francisca Rubio, Daniel Masa-Bote, Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Eduardo Matallanas, Estefanía Caamaño-Martín and Álvaro Gutiérrez. Instituto de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos de Concentración concentration photovoltaics hybrid system first year of operation and improvements. Progress in Photovoltaics, 21(6), pages 1260-1275, September 2013, ISSN: 1099-159X, IF: 9.696. doi: 10.1002/pip.2366.

  • [J04]

    Eduardo Matallanas, Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Álvaro Gutiérrez, Félix Monasterio-Huelin, Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Daniel Masa and Javier Jiménez-Leube. Neural Network Controller for Active Demand Side Management with PV Energy in the Residential Sector. Applied Energy , 91(1), pages 90-97, March 2012, ISSN: 0306-2619, IF: 4.781. Highly Cited Research Paper 2012 to 2013 Award.

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    Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Eduardo Matallanas, Álvaro Gutiérrez, Félix Monasterio-Huelin, Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Daniel Masa and Javier Jiménez-Leube. Heterogeneous Collaborative Sensor Network for Electrical Management of an Automated House with PV Energy. Sensors, 11(12), pages 11544-11559. December 2011. ISSN: 1424-8220, IF: 1.739.

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    Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Álvaro Gutiérrez, Félix Monasterio-Huelin, Estefanía Caamaño, Daniel Masa, Javier Jiménez-Leube. A Semi-Distributed Electric Demand-Side Management System with PV Generation for Self-Consumption Enhancement. Energy Conversion and Management 52(7), pages 2659-2666, July 2011, ISSN: 0196-8904, IF: 2.216.

  • [P08]

    Pablo Trujillo, Cesar Alamillo, Eduardo Gil, Óscar de la Rubia, María Martínez, Francisca Rubio, Andros Cadavid, José Navarro, Sascha Hillenbrand, Isabel Ballesteros-Sánchez, Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Daniel Masa-Bote, Eduardo Matallanas, Estefanía Caamaño-Martín and Álvaro Gutiérrez. CPV hybrid system in ISFOC building, first results. 8th International Conference on Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems. April 2012, American Institute of Physics, Maryland, USA, pages 360-363. ISBN: 978-0-7354-1086-2.

  • [P07]

    Eduardo Matallanas, Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Daniel Masa-Bote, Álvaro Gutiérrez and Félix Monasterio-Huelin. Analysis of the Self-Consumption Possibilities in Small Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Spain. 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. September 2011, WIP-Renewable Energies, Munich, Germany, pages 4619-4624.

  • [P06]

    Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Eduardo Matallanas, Daniel Masa-Bote, Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Álvaro Gutiérrez, Félix Monasterio-Huelin and Javier Jiménez-Leube. Self-consumption enhancement with storage system and demand-side management: GeDELOS-PV system. 5th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference (IRES 2010). November 2010, EUROSOLAR, Bonn, Germany.

  • [P05]

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  • [P04]

    Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Álvaro Gutiérrez, Daniel Masa-Bote, Félix Monasterio-Huelin, Jorge Porro, Eduardo Matallanas and Javier Jiménez-Leube. Self-Consumption of PV Electricity with Active Demand Side Management: the GeDELOS-PV System. 25th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference/5th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion. September 2010, WIP-Renewable Energies, Munich, Germany, pages 4866-4870. ISBN: 3-936338-26-4.

  • [P03]

    Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Daniel Masa, Álvaro Gutiérrez, Félix Monasterio-Huelin, Javier Jiménez-Leube, Jorge Porro y Manuel Castillo-Cagigal. Optimización del Uso de un Sistema Fotovoltaico Mediante Gestión Activa de la Demanda. I Congreso de Generación Distribuida. November 2009, Fundación de la Energía de la Comunidad de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, pages 121-126. ISBN: 978-84-613-6375-9.

  • [P02]

    Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Álvaro Gutiérrez, Félix Monasterio-Huelin, Daniel Masa, Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Javier Jiménez-Leube and Jorge Porro. Sistema de Control Distribuido para la Gestión de la Demanda en el Sector Residencial. I Congreso de Generación Distribuida. November 2009, Fundación de la Energía de la Comunidad de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, pages 275-280. ISBN: 978-84-613-6375-9.

  • [P01]

    Estefanía Caamaño-Martín, Daniel Masa, Álvaro Gutiérrez, Félix Monasterio-Huelin, Manuel Castillo-Cagigal, Javier Jiménez-Leube and Jorge Porro. Optimizing PV use through active demand side management. 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, September 2009, WIP-Renewable Energies, Munich, Germany, pages 3149-3155. ISBN: 3-936338-25-6.

  • [T01]

    Manuel Castillo-Cagigal. A swarm intelligence approach based on coupled oscillators: an application in demand side management with photovoltaic distributed generation. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. December 2014.